The results are also consistent with the hypothesis that the superior mandibular muscle functions primarily in closing. Co-contraction of the lateral mandibular muscles and the superior mandibular muscles was also observed, suggesting that these muscles may also stabilize the beaks during movement or provide a means of controllingthe location of the pivot between the beaks.


An additional sample of 27 Octopus vulgaris paralarvae was obtained from spawning females that deposited and incubated egg bunches in plastic burrows inside a 12,000-L tank… The half beaks were cleaned with water and the mucus covering the inner part of the lateral walls was removed by rubbing it softly with the fingers (obviously, this operation was not necessary in the case of the paralarvae beaks).

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